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The ElectricSQL system builds on decades of research into local-first software and distributed database consistency, integrity and performance. In many cases, this research has been authored by ElectricSQL's team and advisors.

Research papers

This page lists a non-exhaustive selection of papers that chart the development of some of the key concepts and algorithms that ElectricSQL is based on.

2011Conflict-free Replicated Data Types (CRDTs)Nuno Preguiça, Carlos Baquero, Marc Shapiro
2011Don’t Settle for Eventual: Scalable Causal Consistency for Wide-Area Storage with COPSWyatt Lloyd, Michael J. Freedman, Michael Kaminsky, David G. Andersen
2012Making Geo-Replicated Systems Fast as Possible, Consistent when NecessaryCheng Li, Daniel Porto, Allen Clement, Johannes Gehrke, Nuno Preguiça, Rodrigo Rodrigues
2012Calvin: Fast Distributed Transactions for Partitioned Database SystemsAlexander Thomson, Thaddeus Diamond, Shu-Chun Weng, Kun Ren, Philip Shao, Daniel J. Abadi
2013Spanner: Google’s Globally-Distributed DatabaseJames C. Corbett, Jeffrey Dean, Michael Epstein, Andrew Fikes, Christopher Frost, J. J. Furman, Sanjay Ghemawat, Andrey Gubarev, Christopher Heiser, Peter Hochschild, Wilson Hsieh, Sebastian Kanthak, Eugene Kogan, Hongyi Li, Alexander Lloyd, Sergey Melnik, David Mwaura, David Nagle, Sean Quinlan, Rajesh Rao, Lindsay Rolig, Yasushi Saito, Michal Szymaniak, Christopher Taylor, Ruth Wang, Dale Woodford
2013Highly Available Transactions: Virtues and LimitationsPeter Bailis, Aaron Davidson, Alan Fekete, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Ion Stoica
2013SwiftCloud: Fault-Tolerant Geo-Replication Integrated all the Way to the Client MachineMarek Zawirski, Annette Bieniusa, Valter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carlos Baquero, Marc Shapiro, Nuno Preguiça
2014Coordination Avoidance in Database SystemsPeter Bailis, Alan Fekete†, Michael J. Franklin, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Ion Stoica
2014Scalable Atomic Visibility with RAMP TransactionsPeter Bailis, Alan Fekete, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Ion Stoica
2015Extending Eventually Consistent Cloud Databases for Enforcing Numeric InvariantsValter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carla Ferreira, Mahsa Najafzadeh, Nuno Preguiça, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Marc Shapiro, Diogo Serra
2015Feral Concurrency Control: An Empirical Investigation of Modern Application IntegrityPeter Bailis, Alan Fekete, Michael J. Franklin, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Ion Stoica
2016Cause I’m Strong Enough: Reasoning about Consistency Choices in Distributed SystemsAlexey Gotsman, Hongseok Yang, Mahsa Najafzadeh, Carla Ferreira, Marc Shapiro
2016The CISE Tool: Proving Weakly-Consistent Applications CorrectMahsa Najafzadeh, Alexey Gotsman, Hongseok Yang, Carla Ferreira, Marc Shapiro
2016Cure: strong semantics meets high availability and low latencyDeepthi Devaki Akkoorath, Alejandro Z. Tomsic, Manuel Bravo, Zhongmiao Li, Tyler Crain, Annette Bieniusa, Nuno Preguiça, Marc Shapiro
2016Antidote: the highly-available geo-replicated database with strongest guaranteesDeepthi Devaki Akkoorath, Annette Bieniusa
2016BigSets: Scaling CRDTs to large sizes in RiakRussell Brown, Torben Hoffmann
2017Bringing Hybrid Consistency Closer to ProgrammersGonçalo Marcelino, Valter Balegas, Carla Ferreira
2017Pure Operation-Based Replicated Data TypesCarlos Baquero, Paulo Sérgio Almeida, Ali Shoker
2018Just-Right Consistency: reconciling availability and safetyMarc Shapiro, Annette Bieniusa, Nuno Preguiça, Valter Balegas, Christopher Meiklejohn
2018IPA: invariant-preserving applications for weakly consistent replicated databasesValter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carla Ferreira, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Nuno Preguiça
2018Delta State Replicated Data TypesPaulo Sérgio Almeida, Ali Shoker, Carlos Baquero
2018Anna: A KVS For Any ScaleChenggang Wu, Jose M. Faleiro, Yihan Lin, Joseph M. Hellerstein
2018Interactive Checks for Coordination AvoidanceMichael Whittaker, Joseph M. Hellerstein
2018ACGreGate: A Framework for Practical Access Control for Applications using Weakly Consistent DatabasesMathias Weber, Annette Bieniusa
2019CAnDoR: Consistency Aware Dynamic data ReplicationEtienne Mauffret, Flavien Vernier, Sébastien Monnet
2019A Generic Replicated Data Type for Strong Eventual ConsistencyKevin De Porre, Florian Myter, Christophe De Troyer, Christophe Scholliers, Wolfgang De Meuter, Elisa Gonzalez Boix
2019Keeping CALM: When Distributed Consistency is EasyJoseph M. Hellerstein, Peter Alvaro
2019Invariant Safety for Distributed Applications"Sreeja Nair, Gustavo Petri, Marc Shapiro
2019LightKone Reference Architecture (LiRA)Ali Shoker, Paulo Sergio Almeida, Carlos Baquero, Annette Bieniusa, Roger Pueyo Centelles, Pedro Akos Costa, Vitor Enes, Carla Ferreira, Pedro Fouto, Felix Freitag, Bradley King, Igor Kopestenski, Giorgos Kostopoulos, João Leitão, Adam Lindberg, Albert van der Linde, Sreeja Nair, Nuno Preguiça, Mennan Selimi, Marc Shapiro, Peer Stritzinger, Ilyas Toumlilt, Peter Van Roy, Dimitrios Vasilas, Georges Younes, Igor Zavalyshyn, Peter Zeller
2019CDB: Geo-Replicated, Conflict-Free Document Database with Session GuaranteesChetan Venkatesh, Durga Gokina, Christopher S. Meiklejohn
2019A Tour of Gallifrey, a Language for Geodistributed ProgrammingMae Milano, Rolph Recto, Tom Magrino, Andrew C. Myers
2019Local-First Software: You Own Your Data, in spite of the CloudMartin Kleppmann, Adam Wiggins, Peter van Hardenberg, Mark McGranaghan
2020Specification of a Transactionally and Causally-Consistent (TCC) databaseSaalik Hatia, Marc Shapiro
2020CScript: A distributed programming language for building mixed-consistency applicationsKevin De Porre, Florian Myter, Christophe Scholliers, Elisa Gonzalez Boix
2020Cloudburst: Stateful Functions-as-a-ServiceVikram Sreekanti, Chenggang Wu, Xiayue Charles Lin, Johann Schleier-Smith, Joseph E. Gonzalez, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Alexey Tumanov
2020Transactional Causal Consistency for Serverless ComputingChenggang Wu, Vikram Sreekanti, Joseph M. Hellerstein
2020Conflict-Free Replicated Relations for Multi-Synchronous Database Management at EdgeWeihai Yu, Claudia-Lavinia Ignat
2021Advanced Domain-Driven Design for Consistency in Distributed Data-Intensive SystemsSusanne Braun, Annette Bieniusa, Frank Elberzhager
2021Tackling Consistency-related Design Challenges of Distributed Data-Intensive Systems - An Action Research StudySusanne Braun, Stefan Deßloch, Eberhard Wolff, Frank Elberzhager, Andreas Jedlitschka
2021ECROs: Building Global Scale Systems from Sequential CodeKevin De Porre, Carla Ferreira, Nuno Preguiça, Elisa Gonzalez
2021It’s about Thyme: On the design and implementation of a time-aware reactive storage system for pervasive edge computingJoão A. Silva, Filipe Cerqueira, Hervé Paulino, João M. Lourenço, João Leitão, Nuno Preguiça
2021Thespis: Causally-consistent OLTPJoseph G. Vella, Vitezslav Nezval
2021AUTOGR: automated geo-replication with fast system performance and preserved application semanticsJiawei Wang, Cheng Li, Kai Ma, Jingze Huo, Feng Yan, Xinyu Feng, Yinlong Xu
2021New Directions in Cloud ProgrammingAlvin Cheung, Natacha Crooks, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Mae Milano
2021Highly-Available and Consistent Group Collaboration at the Edge with ColonyIlyas Toumlilt, Pierre Sutra, Marc Shapiro
2021Towards a General Database Management System of Conflict-Free Repli- cated RelationsIver Toft Tomter
2022Building data-centric apps with a reactive relational databaseNicholas Schiefer, Geoffrey Litt, Johannes Schickling, Daniel Jackson
2022VeriFx: Correct Replicated Data Types for the MassesKevin De Porre, Carla Ferreira, Elisa Gonzalez Boix