The ElectricSQL system builds on decades of research into local-first software and distributed database consistency, integrity and performance. In many cases, this research has been pioneered by ElectricSQL’s team and advisors.

Research papers

This page lists a selection of papers that chart the development of some of the key concepts and algorithms. It is not an exhaustive list but this selection of papers and the references they cite should provide a good entry point to the research and systems that ElectricSQL is based on. You can filter the list by keyword and / or by clicking on an author’s name.

Year Name Authors Link
2011 Conflict-free Replicated Data Types (CRDTs) Nuno Preguiça, Carlos Baquero and Marc Shapiro View
2011 Don’t Settle for Eventual: Scalable Causal Consistency for Wide-Area Storage with COPS Wyatt Lloyd, Michael J. Freedman, Michael Kaminsky and David G. Andersen View
2012 Making Geo-Replicated Systems Fast as Possible, Consistent when Necessary Cheng Li, Daniel Porto, Allen Clement, Johannes Gehrke, Nuno Preguiça and Rodrigo Rodrigues View
2012 Calvin: Fast Distributed Transactions for Partitioned Database Systems Alexander Thomson, Thaddeus Diamond, Shu-Chun Weng, Kun Ren, Philip Shao and Daniel J. Abadi View
2013 Spanner: Google’s Globally-Distributed Database James C. Corbett, Jeffrey Dean, Michael Epstein, Andrew Fikes, Christopher Frost, J. J. Furman, Sanjay Ghemawat, Andrey Gubarev, Christopher Heiser, Peter Hochschild, Wilson Hsieh, Sebastian Kanthak, Eugene Kogan, Hongyi Li, Alexander Lloyd, Sergey Melnik, David Mwaura, David Nagle, Sean Quinlan, Rajesh Rao, Lindsay Rolig, Yasushi Saito, Michal Szymaniak, Christopher Taylor, Ruth Wang and Dale Woodford View
2013 Highly Available Transactions: Virtues and Limitations Peter Bailis, Aaron Davidson, Alan Fekete, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Ion Stoica View
2013 SwiftCloud: Fault-Tolerant Geo-Replication Integrated all the Way to the Client Machine Marek Zawirski, Annette Bieniusa, Valter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carlos Baquero, Marc Shapiro and Nuno Preguiça View
2014 Coordination Avoidance in Database Systems Peter Bailis, Alan Fekete†, Michael J. Franklin, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Ion Stoica View
2014 Scalable Atomic Visibility with RAMP Transactions Peter Bailis, Alan Fekete, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Ion Stoica View
2015 Extending Eventually Consistent Cloud Databases for Enforcing Numeric Invariants Valter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carla Ferreira, Mahsa Najafzadeh, Nuno Preguiça, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Marc Shapiro and Diogo Serra View
2015 Feral Concurrency Control: An Empirical Investigation of Modern Application Integrity Peter Bailis, Alan Fekete, Michael J. Franklin, Ali Ghodsi, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Ion Stoica View
2016 Cause I’m Strong Enough: Reasoning about Consistency Choices in Distributed Systems Alexey Gotsman, Hongseok Yang, Mahsa Najafzadeh, Carla Ferreira and Marc Shapiro View
2016 The CISE Tool: Proving Weakly-Consistent Applications Correct Mahsa Najafzadeh, Alexey Gotsman, Hongseok Yang, Carla Ferreira and Marc Shapiro View
2016 Cure: strong semantics meets high availability and low latency Deepthi Devaki Akkoorath, Alejandro Z. Tomsic, Manuel Bravo, Zhongmiao Li, Tyler Crain, Annette Bieniusa, Nuno Preguiça and Marc Shapiro View
2016 Antidote: the highly-available geo-replicated database with strongest guarantees Deepthi Devaki Akkoorath and Annette Bieniusa View
2016 BigSets: Scaling CRDTs to large sizes in Riak Russell Brown and Torben Hoffmann View
2017 Bringing Hybrid Consistency Closer to Programmers Gonçalo Marcelino, Valter Balegas and Carla Ferreira View
2017 Pure Operation-Based Replicated Data Types Carlos Baquero, Paulo Sérgio Almeida and Ali Shoker View
2018 Just-Right Consistency: reconciling availability and safety Marc Shapiro, Annette Bieniusa, Nuno Preguiça, Valter Balegas and Christopher Meiklejohn View
2018 IPA: invariant-preserving applications for weakly consistent replicated databases Valter Balegas, Sérgio Duarte, Carla Ferreira, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Nuno Preguiça View
2018 Delta State Replicated Data Types Paulo Sérgio Almeida, Ali Shoker and Carlos Baquero View
2018 Anna: A KVS For Any Scale Chenggang Wu, Jose M. Faleiro, Yihan Lin and Joseph M. Hellerstein View
2018 Interactive Checks for Coordination Avoidance Michael Whittaker and Joseph M. Hellerstein View
2018 ACGreGate: A Framework for Practical Access Control for Applications using Weakly Consistent Databases Mathias Weber and Annette Bieniusa View
2019 CAnDoR: Consistency Aware Dynamic data Replication Etienne Mauffret, Flavien Vernier and Sébastien Monnet View
2019 A Generic Replicated Data Type for Strong Eventual Consistency Kevin De Porre, Florian Myter, Christophe De Troyer, Christophe Scholliers, Wolfgang De Meuter and Elisa Gonzalez Boix View
2019 Keeping CALM: When Distributed Consistency is Easy Joseph M. Hellerstein and Peter Alvaro View
2019 Invariant Safety for Distributed Applications" Sreeja Nair, Gustavo Petri and Marc Shapiro View
2019 LightKone Reference Architecture (LiRA) Ali Shoker, Paulo Sergio Almeida, Carlos Baquero, Annette Bieniusa, Roger Pueyo Centelles, Pedro Akos Costa, Vitor Enes, Carla Ferreira, Pedro Fouto, Felix Freitag, Bradley King, Igor Kopestenski, Giorgos Kostopoulos, João Leitão, Adam Lindberg, Albert van der Linde, Sreeja Nair, Nuno Preguiça, Mennan Selimi, Marc Shapiro, Peer Stritzinger, Ilyas Toumlilt, Peter Van Roy, Dimitrios Vasilas, Georges Younes, Igor Zavalyshyn and Peter Zeller View
2019 CDB: Geo-Replicated, Conflict-Free Document Database with Session Guarantees Chetan Venkatesh, Durga Gokina and Christopher S. Meiklejohn View
2019 A Tour of Gallifrey, a Language for Geodistributed Programming Mae Milano, Rolph Recto, Tom Magrino and Andrew C. Myers View
2019 Local-First Software: You Own Your Data, in spite of the Cloud Martin Kleppmann, Adam Wiggins, Peter van Hardenberg and Mark McGranaghan View
2020 Specification of a Transactionally and Causally-Consistent (TCC) database Saalik Hatia and Marc Shapiro View
2020 CScript: A distributed programming language for building mixed-consistency applications Kevin De Porre, Florian Myter, Christophe Scholliers and Elisa Gonzalez Boix View
2020 Cloudburst: Stateful Functions-as-a-Service Vikram Sreekanti, Chenggang Wu, Xiayue Charles Lin, Johann Schleier-Smith, Joseph E. Gonzalez, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Alexey Tumanov View
2020 Transactional Causal Consistency for Serverless Computing Chenggang Wu, Vikram Sreekanti and Joseph M. Hellerstein View
2020 Conflict-Free Replicated Relations for Multi-Synchronous Database Management at Edge Weihai Yu and Claudia-Lavinia Ignat View
2021 Advanced Domain-Driven Design for Consistency in Distributed Data-Intensive Systems Susanne Braun, Annette Bieniusa and Frank Elberzhager View
2021 Tackling Consistency-related Design Challenges of Distributed Data-Intensive Systems - An Action Research Study Susanne Braun, Stefan Deßloch, Eberhard Wolff, Frank Elberzhager and Andreas Jedlitschka View
2021 ECROs: Building Global Scale Systems from Sequential Code Kevin De Porre, Carla Ferreira, Nuno Preguiça and Elisa Gonzalez View
2021 It’s about Thyme: On the design and implementation of a time-aware reactive storage system for pervasive edge computing João A. Silva, Filipe Cerqueira, Hervé Paulino, João M. Lourenço, João Leitão and Nuno Preguiça View
2021 Thespis: Causally-consistent OLTP Joseph G. Vella and Vitezslav Nezval View
2021 AUTOGR: automated geo-replication with fast system performance and preserved application semantics Jiawei Wang, Cheng Li, Kai Ma, Jingze Huo, Feng Yan, Xinyu Feng and Yinlong Xu View
2021 New Directions in Cloud Programming Alvin Cheung, Natacha Crooks, Joseph M. Hellerstein and Mae Milano View
2021 Highly-Available and Consistent Group Collaboration at the Edge with Colony Ilyas Toumlilt, Pierre Sutra and Marc Shapiro View
2021 Towards a General Database Management System of Conflict-Free Repli- cated Relations Iver Toft Tomter View
2022 Building data-centric apps with a reactive relational database Nicholas Schiefer, Geoffrey Litt, Johannes Schickling and Daniel Jackson View
2022 VeriFx: Correct Replicated Data Types for the Masses Kevin De Porre, Carla Ferreira and Elisa Gonzalez Boix View